Image of toxic gases being released on the floor of a refinery plant

Chemical processing plants, refineries, and manufacturing facilities use and produce acidic or basic solutions, such as hydrofluoric acid (HF), hydrochloric acid (HCl), chlorine (Cl), or ammonia (NH3). These can produce toxic gas clouds if they are accidentally leaked or exposed to atmospheric conditions. Mitigating accidental releases of these gases can often be accomplished with water sprays with small average droplet sizes, maximizing the surface area to volume ratio and providing the greatest contact between the water and the toxic/corrosive gas. BETE nozzles are used worldwide in toxic gas mitigation spray systems to remove water-soluble, toxic gases from the air in an accidental leak. Nozzles prevent the spread of hazardous and poisonous vapor clouds into the atmosphere by producing a cloud of small droplets capable of capturing and containing the leak.

BETE Fire Protection Brochure

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HF Mitigation by Water Sprays

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FM Approval: AFF series

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Lloyd's Register Certificate

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US Coast Guard Certificate

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Important factors to consider:

Size & shape of target object or area

Available nozzle mounting locations

Required droplet size for effective mitigation

  • In most applications, maximizing the surface area to volume ratio of the spray is the most important factor as this exposes the greatest amount of surface area
  • As the absorption kinetics are primarily driven by surface area, this leads to more efficient capture of the gas by the liquid

Required flow rate for effective mitigation

Available pressure drop (∆P) across the nozzle

  • ∆P = supply pressure at nozzle inlet – process pressure outside nozzle

Required material for environment and chemical compatibility

As a nozzle manufacturer, BETE Fog Nozzle Inc. cannot assume responsibility for the design of life/safety systems

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